Information

Main Personality Disorders

Main Personality Disorders

Personality disorders

The Personality disorder it is considered different from a clinical disorder due to that persists throughout adulthood, while the clinical disorder has an onset and an evolution over time.

Although it is the subject of intense debate, all current classifications of personality disorders require: 1) that the onset of the disorder be in childhood or adolescence (early start); 2) that there is a persistence of behavior over time and in almost all situations (stability and consistency); and 3) what causes personal suffering, problems at work or difficulties in family or social relationships.

Content

  • 1 Origin of Personality Disorders
  • 2 Group A (rare or eccentric disorders)
  • 3 Group B (dramatic, emotional or erratic disorders)
  • 4 Group C (anxious or fearful disorders)
  • 5 Treatments of personality disorders

Origin of Personality Disorders

Like mental health problems, personality disorders are probably the result of the interaction of multiple environmental and genetic factors. There is increasing evidence that there is a genetic component. There are studies that indicate the inheritance of personality characters and personality disorders, ranging from 30% to 50%. And family and childhood experiences are important, including having experienced abuse (emotional, physical and sexual), abandonment and harassment.

With respect to the current classification, the recently published fifth edition of DSM (DSM-V) has not modified the previous classification by categories, although it is a more complex alternative. Emphasize personality traits and a dimensional concept.

It should be noted that the features that describe each of the personality disorders can also be found in “healthy” people, for example, the fact that obsessive-compulsive personality disorder implies, among other characteristics, a great meticulousness. It means that everyone who has this feature should receive the diagnosis.

You can distinguish 10 diagnoses grouped into three categories, which I will try to summarize below.

Group A (rare or eccentric disorders)

This group is characterized by a penetrating pattern of cognition (eg suspicion), expression (eg foreign language) and relationship with others (eg isolation) abnormal.

Paranoid

It is a mental condition whereby a person has a pattern of distrust and suspicion of others for a long time. They are suspicious, resentful and hostile individuals who respond angrily to any situation close to ridicule. They perceive themselves as innocent, fair and noble, on the contrary they consider others malicious, malicious and interested.

Schizoid

It is a mental condition whereby a person has a lifelong pattern (for life) of indifference to others and social isolation. Unlike the schizotypal, the absence of social relationships is not due to anxiety but to a voluntary rejection because it perceives itself as sufficient and others as intrusive and undesirable.

Schizotypal

It is a mental condition whereby a person has difficulty with interpersonal relationships and alterations in thought patterns, appearance and behavior. That is, they behave strangely, stand out for a very peculiar appearance, it is difficult to understand what they say both for the content and for the form. They have little affectivity and remain socially isolated due to the great anxiety caused by social contact, in addition to holding extravagant beliefs.

Group B (dramatic, emotional or erratic disorders)

These disorders are characterized by a penetrating pattern of violation of social norms (eg criminal behavior), impulsive behavior, excessive emotionality and grandeur.

Antisocial

It is a mental condition whereby a person has a prolonged pattern of manipulation, exploitation or violation of the rights of others. It perceives others as weak and shows dishonesty, impulsiveness, aggressiveness and irresponsibility in their actions, as well as a lack of regrets against the harm caused to others.

Limit

It is a mental condition whereby a person has prolonged patterns of turbulent or unstable emotions. It is defined by the instability of both self-image and interpersonal relationships, as well as humor. For this reason, it is common to observe an alternation between the idealization and the devaluation of their friendships, together with a frantic effort not to be abandoned. These mood alterations lead them in most cases to present self-harm and suicide attempts.

Histrionic

It is a mental condition whereby people act in a very emotional and dramatic way that attracts attention to them. They do not support being ignored or rejected. They use their physical appearance to get attention, as well as being overly emotional.

Narcissistic

It is a mental condition for which a person has: exaggerated sense of self-centeredness, an extreme concern for himself and lack of empathy with other people. Since they are a special case, it seems lawful to skip the rules and use others for their benefit. In most cases they are very sensitive to criticism and therefore can present problems related to moods.

Group C (anxious or fearful disorders)

This group is characterized by a penetrating pattern of abnormal fears, including social relationships, separation and need for control.

Avoidance

It is a mental condition whereby a person has a lifelong pattern of feeling very shy, inadequate and sensitive to rejection, because it is perceived as very vulnerable and socially incapable. They see others as superiors and critics, and avoid situations in which they may feel judged or evaluated.

Dependence

It is a mental condition whereby people depend too much on others to meet their emotional and physical needs. They tend to idealize others, showing themselves helpless, unable to do anything on their own and very absorbing in their relationships with others.

Obsessive compulsive

It is a mental condition for which a person is concerned about rules, order and control. They are extremely perfectionist, detailed and organized people, with difficulty delegating tasks, very scrupulous. They consider themselves as very responsible and competent, but others as the opposite. This obviously becomes disabling.

If you want to see the general diagnostic criteria of each disorder (although based on DSM-V Y ICD-10)

Treatments of personality disorders

Personality problems are characterized because they occupy much of the person's life at the present time and over time. In its treatment it is intended to change to be able to solve the current problems and then identify and modify learned and effective behaviors in the past that continue to be used in the present, where they are no longer convenient.

The cognitive behavioral techniques They have begun to give effective alternatives to these types of problems. Recent advances in the understanding of language processes have led to the emergence of a new generation of cognitive behavioral therapy: contextual therapies. Among the different lines of development that are taking place at this time, the following stand out: Acceptance and commitment therapy, Linehan's behavioral dialectic therapy, the Functional Analytical Psychotherapy, by Koheleberg, Jacobson's couple behavioral integrative therapy.

In the basic learning we do to be able to handle ourselves in life, our vital circumstances may have led us to solve the problems that were presented to us in a way that had its function and effectiveness in those situations and with the means and knowledge we had. However, these ways of solving problems are incorporated as automatic schemes and we use them in situations in current situations where they are not effective and in which we would now be able to act differently. These schemes are very basic and affect many situations and problems.

The identification and modification of these past behavior patterns, from our present experience, is the key to treatment.

Related tests
  • Depression test
  • Goldberg depression test
  • Self-knowledge test
  • how do others see you?
  • Sensitivity test (PAS)
  • Character test