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Corpus callosum, anatomy, function and Agenesis

Corpus callosum, anatomy, function and Agenesis

The hard body it is a set of nerve fibers that connect the two cerebral hemispheres. Located in the interhemispheric fissure, a deep groove that separates the two hemispheres, its main function is that of connect and transfer motor, sensory and cognitive information between the two hemispheres.

Content

  • 1 Anatomy of the corpus callosum
  • 2 Functions of the corpus callosum
  • 3 Agenesis of the corpus callosum
  • 4 Symptoms of Agenesis of the corpus callosum
  • 5 Treatment of agenesis of the corpus callosum

Anatomy of the corpus callosum

This brain structure that measures about 10 centimeters, is the largest corner which communicates the left hemisphere with the right. It consists of white matter, a tissue composed of myelinated nerve fibers, containing almost 200 million neuron axons.

The corpus callosum begins to form in the brain during pregnancy and continues to develop in childhood, ending normally developing over 12 years.

The corpus callosum is formed by different parts distinguishing:

  • Peak, which connects the cerebral cortex with the optic chiasma
  • Knee (Genu), located in the anterior zone, is the one that connects the frontal lobes
  • Body, is the central area of ​​the corpus callosum
  • Rodete or splendor, connect the occipital lobes

Functions of the corpus callosum

As we have mentioned, the corpus callosum connects the two cerebral hemispheres for information processing and the overall good functioning of the brain. Although its functions are many, some of the specific actions of the corpus callosum are:

  • Vision and eye movements: The corpus callosum combines the two separate halves of our visual field and allows us to identify what we see by connecting the visual cortex with the centers of language
  • Maintenance of the balance between attention and excitement.
  • Touch location: This structure transfers the tactile information between the cerebral hemispheres.

Agenesis of the corpus callosum

When people they are born without a corpus callosum or with a non-complete corpus callosum, there is a disorder known as agenesis of the corpus callosum. This affects approximately 1 in 3,000 people.

Normally, this condition is diagnostic during the first two years of people's lives, on many occasions, after an epileptic attack. However, sometimes this can be diagnosed at later stages. The techniques used to diagnose agenesis of the corpus callosum are the techniques of brain images such as functional magnetic resonance imaging or the computed axial tomography (CAT) in which anomalies are detected in this structure.

Problems related to this structure can also occur due to damage to the corpus callosum or developmental disorders during pregnancy. This may be due to some viruses or infections such as rubella, genetic abnormalities or environmental causes such as fetal alcohol syndrome.

Agenesis of the corpus callosum can cause people to present different developmental difficulties. Thus, those affected may have vision and blindness problems, hearing problems or difficulties in speaking, understanding language or walking, as well as presenting spasms and convulsions among other problems.

Symptoms of agenesis of the corpus callosum

The symptoms that indicate a problem in the corpus callosum are the following:

Physical Symptoms

  • Vision difficulties
  • Feeding difficulties
  • Abnormal facial or cranial features
  • Low muscle tone
  • Bad coordination and motor clumsiness
  • Hearing difficulties
  • Seizures
  • High tolerance to pain

Cognitive Symptoms

  • Difficulties in language acquisition
  • Social and behavioral difficulties
  • Lack of self-awareness
  • Hyperactivity
  • Lack of attention
  • Difficulties in solving complex problems
  • Lack of ability to assess risks
  • Difficulty understanding other people's emotions and perspectives
  • Problems understanding abstract concepts

The symptoms of agenesis can vary from mild to severe depending on the degree of involvement and even on some occasions, people with agenesis of the corpus callosum can have a proper functioning and lead a healthy life. Some researchers have discovered that the brain with agenesis can compensate for the lack of the corpus callosum by establishing new connections between the two cerebral hemispheres, although this reconnection process is still unknown.

Treatment of agenesis of the corpus callosum

Treatment for agenesis of the corpus callosum involves different interventions that affect the particular problems that the patient presents, focusing on the motor functioning and social skills. Thus, after a previous assessment and evaluation, the techniques to be used can be from the occupational therapy to the techniques of kinesitherapy for motor evolution. Impaired senses such as sight or touch can be stimulated, as well as a psychomotor rehabilitation To improve the balance. All these treatments focus on alleviating the symptoms of agenesis and should be well structured and integrated, as well as carried out by health professionals, the family and relatives of the patient being part of the treatment.