“Knowledge is an uncertain adventure that carries in itself and permanently the risk of illusion and error”Edgar Morín
- 1 The reading process
- 2 Intellectual development, differences between Piaget and Vygotsky
- 3 The importance of cultural context in literacy
- 4 Literacy and cognitive skills
- 5 Key concepts in the acquisition of knowledge in childhood
The reading process
The reading processes are established thanks to the efforts of the people who read and teach to read in a society that is intertwined with materials and reasons for a written communication. Where the child development It plays a key role, taking into account that children are subjects of communication, who adapt their thoughts to different contexts. From that perspective, in 1952 Piaget describes the process of assimilation and accommodation, which is characterized by the entity that forms the organism and the environment, which become indissoluble. That is, adaptive changes that simultaneously involve a structuring of the organism and an action of the environment. Following that same line in 1977, Piaget try to explain the relationship of the individual and society, saying that both could not be separated because the individual and the social, are intertwined through the relationships that maintain the living and dead subjects.
Intellectual development, differences between Piaget and Vygotsky
Likewise, Piaget and Vygotsky they emphasize the idea that intellectual development can only be understood from the relationship of the individual and the environment, as inseparable. Which means that learning processes are only viable from that union. However, Piaget and Vygotsky differ in the importance they attach to the role they give to the social world and the individual, in their theories. For Piaget, children are individuals who develop between objects and make sense of the world through this activity.. For this author, the sociocultural context receives little attention, taking into account that his reflections on the social world are largely limited to the interpersonal context. Context that provides a framework for sociocognitive conflict. In Vygotsky is constructed from the premise that the intellectual development of the individual cannot be understood without a social reference in which the child is immersed. That is, cognitive processes are established from the interaction in the sociocultural fields.
The importance of cultural context in literacy
Faced with that panorama, cognitive activities must be considered from the cultural context in which the individual is immersed. From institutions that take care of their basic needs such as religious, political, economic, health and educational systems. All these systems are related allowing subjects to have a harmonic life. This is how the child can master the concepts of conservation to the extent that he can participate in the goals and practices associated with these concepts. In addition, the cultural system includes not only bureaucratic social institutions such as schools and political and economic systems, but also informal systems of practices in which people participate. Where different social problems are analyzed from various alternatives, because Each generation not only inherits genes but cultural products, which include problem-solving technologies.
Among these are the linguistic systems, which structure the categories of reality and their approaches to gather information and transform it through writing. And the mathematical and mnemonic systems, which help keep information in memory over time. From that dimension, language is established as a cultural instrument of great importance for thought, generating great value in cognitive aspects and intellectual systems. In that sense the literacy processes They have been the object of great attention in channeling individual thinking. Where writing becomes an instrument that stimulates reflection on information and the way it is designed or organized. That is, literacy processes have an instrumental function in the construction of a certain form of knowledge, in relation to culturally valued activities.
Literacy and cognitive skills
For this purpose, literacy is an excellent example of the levels of relationship between the individual's cognitive abilities, cultural technologies and social institutions, which determine that practice and development. Development or activity that implies progress towards specific goals and skills that are valued. Starting from the multiple systems and appropriate goals, which are sensitive to local circumstances and aspirations.
This will allow subjects to solve problems with instruments and institutions appropriate to the problem. In that sense, The dialogue encourages the development of this social interaction resulting in a shared thought in intersubjective communication.
Of course, this does not explain everything, adults can capture the attention of children through objects that determine events. Taking into account that children learn more from interaction with adults, since it is receptive and instructive, than with the interactions they have with their peers. Interactions that from school can be useful, based on the fact that teachers use peers to expand learning processes. Using tools such as stories and permanent dialogue.
Key concepts in the acquisition of knowledge in childhood
When addressing the acquisition of knowledge, these are some key concepts:
It states that children are individuals who develop between objects and make sense of the world through that activity.
It is established from the premise that the intellectual development of the individual cannot be understood without a reference to the social world in which the child is immersed.
Cultural instrument of great importance for thought, generating great value in cognitive aspects and intellectual systems.
It is an instrument that facilitates reflection on the information and the way it is organized.
They not only include social and bureaucratic institutions such as schools and political and economic systems, but also the informal systems in which people participate.
Finally, cultural systems determine the position that human beings have in different social fields. This is how language becomes an indispensable instrument in these interaction processes, which determine the actions of the subjects. From cognitive activities that are associated with social practices that help individuals to solve their various problems.
Rogoff, B. (1993). Thought apprentices. Cognitive development in social context. Cognition and human development. Barcelona. Editorial Paidós